These 10 Daily Habits Will Make You Smarter. You Can Thank Us Later.

How smart do you think you are? Wish you could be smarter? It’s easier then you may realize. These 10 daily habits are a great place to start. In no time at all you’ll have people bowing down to your new amazing, infinite intelligence. 1.) Think of 10 new ideas everyday.  Even if it’s something dumb like new pizza toppings, you never know what you might come up with. It’s a good way to exercise your brain muscles. Who knows, you might come up with a new million dollar idea.

2.) Read the newspaper. Who reads newspapers anymore? Well you should, or at least get one of those fancy online New York Times subscriptions. Staying up to date with the important things in the world can only make you smarter. Plus, you’ll have a lot more to talk about at parties.

3.) Create different opinions. Going out of your way to form opinions that you wouldn’t have otherwise is a great mental exercise. It helps you keep an open mind to new things and situations. Not to mention you’ll improve your “thinking outside the box” skills.

4.) Read one chapter of a book everyday. Fiction or non-fiction, it doesn’t matter. Reading is like cardio for the brain. For the best mental workout take on the challenge of reading a book a week. Don’t tell me you no time to read. Make time for it.

5.) Educational videos vs. TV. Pick a subject you’re interested in and then go Youtube diving for educational videos. There are so many videos out there on an almost infinite array of topics. TED Talks anyone? Certainly beats wasting time away in front of the TV.

6.) Start following interesting people and news outlets. Following interesting people on Facebook and/or Twitter is a great way to keep your brain learning. I mean you’re going to waste half of your day on Facebook anyway right? You might as well pick a few great pages to like. Maybe you should start by following Neil deGrass Tyson?

7.) Teach others what you’ve learned. You can finally become that smart friend who seems to know something about everything. More practically, teaching and telling others about what you’ve learned is a great way to reinforce your knowledge.

8.) Keep track of your learning. Start blogging or keeping a journal of the things you’re learning about. It’s a great to have a written record to see how far you’ve come. Also, if you’re publicly blogging, it’s a good way to keep yourself accountable.

9.) Hang out with smart people.  If at all possible, you should actually hang out with people who are smarter than you. These folks will teach you something new every time you see them, not to mention inspire you to keep striving for new knowledge.

10.) Do something you’re scared of.  Get the hell out of your comfort zone. Do it. Do it now. I’ll wait. … Seriously though, there’s nothing like getting out of your comfort zone to get your brain working. Start using this mentality: The scarier something feels, the more necessary it is you to do it.

(H/T: Business Insider) Got that? Ok fantastic. Ready to go give a TED Talk? Make your friends smarter by clicking below to share this story.

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The Most Common Eating Disorder Is One You’ve Probably Never Heard Of

Some consider OSFED a less serious version of “real” eating disorders, but it can be just as deadly to those who suffer from it.

1. There is an eating disorder called OSFED that is actually more common than anorexia and bulimia.

Tupungato / Getty Images

OSFED stands for “Other Specified Feeding and Eating Disorders” and is a subclinical categorization to describe eating disorders that do not meet all of the required qualifications of anorexia nervosa, bulimia nervosa, and binge-eating disorder, as recognized by the Diagnostic Statistical Manual (DSM).

To put the numbers in perspective, 1 in 200 adults will suffer from anorexia nervosa, but at least 1 in 20 (and 1 in 10 among teen girls) will exhibit eating disorder symptoms that could get them an OSFED diagnosis, Jennifer J. Thomas, Ph.D., co-director of The Eating Disorders Clinical and Research Program at Massachusetts General Hospital and co-author of Almost Anorexic, tells BuzzFeed.

And OSFED is just as problematic as the clinical eating disorders. “Regardless of diagnosis, the level of pain and distress is the same, and help is available regardless of the number on the scale,” Thomas says.

2. Anorexia nervosa, bulimia nervosa, and binge-eating disorder are diagnosed under a list of symptoms that can leave many people out.

Nastco / Getty Images

Diagnosing these eating disorders requires a specific list of symptoms. If you only have some of the symptoms, you don’t get the official diagnosis.

For example, a bulimia diagnosis requires that a person both binge eats and purges their food. So eating a normal-size meal and throwing it up doesn’t qualify as bulimic, even though it’s clearly an unhealthy eating behavior. Similarly, people may exhibit all the symptoms of anorexia but not be far enough below a healthy weight to meet an official diagnosis.

3. But when it comes to understanding OSFED, it might be helpful to think of eating disorders falling on a continuum.

Almost Anorexic

You might not check off all the boxes for an official anorexia or bulimia diagnosis, but that doesn’t mean that you don’t have disordered eating patterns, or that you don’t need help or shouldn’t seek treatment. “Patients might feel they are not in need of or deserving of treatment unless they fall into a different category, which can be detrimental to recovery,” Rachel Cohen, LCSW, site director at The Renfrew Center of Northern New Jersey, tells BuzzFeed.

4. The chart below demonstrates how many factors can be at play in individual cases.

Almost Anorexic

5. People with OSFED often think their eating disorder isn’t “real,” so they’re less likely to seek treatment.


“This can lead to people who are truly struggling to go for longer periods of time without help, or deter them from ever seeking help at all,” Cohen says. “This also makes it more difficult for people who are struggling with this to be open with family and for families to understand their struggle.”

6. Suffering from OSFED in silence is dangerous — it can be just as fatal as clinical eating disorders.


“According to my research, subthreshold eating disorders can be just as severe as anorexia nervosa in the areas of eating pathology, physical complications, and other mental health problems,” Thomas says. “Eating disorders affect your whole body from the hair on your head to the tips of your toes. Even individuals who look ‘normal’ can die unexpectedly from complications of purging, including low potassium that causes their hearts to stop.”

7. If you think you may have an eating disorder, here are some symptoms to look out for:

Though figuring out of if you have an eating disorder can feel overwhelming, Thomas suggests that you start by asking yourself the questions below. The more “yes” answers you gave, the more likely it is that your relationship with food and body image are problematic.

• Are you underweight, or does your weight frequently shift due to repeated attempts to drop pounds?
• Do you regularly restrict your food intake by amount or variety?
• Do you eat large amounts of food while feeling out of control?
• Do you try to “make up for” calories consumed (e.g., vomiting, laxatives, diuretics, exercise, fasting)?
• Does negative body image interfere with living your life to the fullest?

8. There are many resources for identifying and understanding your relationship with body image, food, and exercise.

Visit Almost Anorexic for a free and confidential screening.

Take the Compulsive Exercise Test to screen for dangerous thoughts habits.

You can download the Recovery Record app to keep track of harmful thoughts and feelings about food.

For more information on diagnosis and treatment, visit The Renfrew Center or dial 1-800-RENFREW.

If you will have difficulty paying for eating disorder treatment, scholarships are available to qualified applicants to Project Heal and The Manna Fund.

9. Though it is hard to take the first step, there is treatment, support, and recovery for those who want to live free of eating disorders.

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Honey Boo Boo Was Called “Obese” And Given A Food Intervention On “The Doctors”

The 9-year-old former reality star weighs about twice as much as the average weight of her age group, they said.

1. Today’s episode of The Doctors featured a health intervention for “Mama June” Shannon about her daughter, Here Comes Honey Boo Boo‘s Alana Thompson, with the hosts calling her “an obese 9-year-old.”

The 4-foot-6 girl weighs about 125 pounds, with the typical weight for her age group being around 60 to 70 pounds.

3. “It all starts with you,” Dr. Travis Stork told the 35-year-old matriarch. “That’s on you.”

Shannon herself lost over 100 pounds in 2013.

5. During the episode, Alana said her favorite exercise is “belly flops.”

“I love a lot of stuff deep-fried,” she added. “I love deep-fried Oreos.”

The little girl rose to fame on the TLC show Toddlers & Tiaras, where her mom would give her “Go Go Juice,” a combination of Mountain Dew and Red Bull, to give her energy for pageants.

7. The doctors gave the former beauty pageant contestant baked chicken as a healthy alternative to her favorite junk food.

Alana was also given a fruit smoothie as an alternative to shakes, pizza with cauliflower crust, and chocolate mousse made with dark chocolate and avocado.



9. “[W]hat’s ironic and something I’ve learned in the emergency department is the common culprit in a lot of these things, believe it or not, is what you’re eating,” Stork told Shannon.

“And when I looked in your fridge, June, I’m sorry but I didn’t see anything in that fridge that’s either going to improve Alana’s weight or decrease inflammation in her body.”

11. Stork told Access Hollywood the child’s weight puts her at risk for diseases like diabetes, stroke, and cancer, which could lead to an early death.

13. The Doctors partnered with a nutritionist near the family for Honey Boo Boo’s new eating plan, which is based on Stork’s book, The Doctor’s Diet. They also gave her a bicycle, and will check in on her progress.

Here Comes Honey Boo Boo was canceled after four seasons when Shannon was accused of dating convicted sex offender Mark McDaniel, who molested her daughter.

15. Watch a clip from the episode:


Updated to clarify information about it being Shannon’s daughter who was molested by McDaniel, at commenters’ request. BF_STATIC.timequeue.push(function () { document.getElementById(“update_article_update_time_5096222”).innerHTML = UI.dateFormat.get_formatted_date(‘2015-02-26 08:32:35 -0500’, ‘update’); });

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#dinnerwithbarack: Obama drops another hashtag into conservatives’ laps!/BarackObama/status/184677994898534400

This is makes fifth time in less than one week. They’ll never learn, will they?

#DinnerWithBarack no thanks

— Blake Kirkland (@jbk06) March 27, 2012

Why is today okay for it to be Day 1,063 without a budget from your Senate Dems? #DinnerWithBarack

— Michelle Lancaster (@SkiGarmisch) March 27, 2012!/ravgames/status/184679410748755970

#DinnerWithBarack would be terrible because he'd make me eat my peas.

— Ashley Sewell (@TXTrendyChick) March 27, 2012

His peas, too RT @TXTrendyChick #DinnerWithBarack would be terrible because he'd make me eat my peas.

— Amelia (@AmeliaHammy) March 27, 2012

For my money back. @barackobama What would you ask the President over dinner? #DinnerWithBarack:

— sarah (@mamaswati) March 27, 2012

#DinnerWithBarack Mr. President, why do you seem determined to make America a european style socialist nation?

— Jim (@BoogymanWF) March 27, 2012

#DinnerWithBarack Vladmir, please pass the borscht.

— The Morning Spew (@TheMorningSpew) March 27, 2012

Why do you want to destroy everything that makes America great? MT @BarackObama: What would you ask the President over dinner?

— Tabitha Hale (@TabithaHale) March 27, 2012!/mesamps/status/184681410504822785

Pardon me. Would you have any Grey Poupon? MT @BarackObama: What would you ask the President over dinner? #DinnerWithBarack

— Jenn Taylor (@JennQPublic) March 27, 2012

Why deny federal funding to TX women bcz they're #prolife? MT @BarackObama: What would you ask the President over dinner? #DinnerWithBarack

— Michelle Lancaster (@SkiGarmisch) March 27, 2012

You need help packing your shit to leave WH? MT @BarackObama: What would you ask the President over dinner? #DinnerWithBarack #tcot

— Tom O'C (@teeocee) March 27, 2012

RT @BarackObama: What would you ask the President over dinner? | "Does Michelle know we're eating this?"

— jimgeraghty (@jimgeraghty) March 27, 2012

Who is John Galt? RT @BarackObama: What would you ask the President over dinner? #DinnerWithBarack

— Lachlan Markay (@lachlan) March 27, 2012

#DinnerWithBarack? What's on the menu, arugula and excuses?

— Neal Dewing (@Neal_Dewing) March 27, 2012

Is this Kosher? MT @BarackObama: What would you ask the President over dinner? #DinnerWithBarack

— Jimmie (@jimmiebjr) March 27, 2012

#DinnerWithBarack More crow Mr President?

— Hugo Hackenbush (@MangyLover) March 27, 2012

The vegetables are free, but you have to make an appointment w/ them 6 weeks ahead #DinnerWithBarack

— Political Math (@politicalmath) March 27, 2012

If I eat my peas may I get a healthcare waiver? #DinnerWithBarack

— Rick Sheridan (@RickSheridan) March 27, 2012!/mitrebox/status/184685735515918336

I'll bring the Slurpees! #DinnerWithBarack

— sarah (@mamaswati) March 27, 2012

I'd like to have #DinnerWithBarack in 2013when his schedule is more flexible. #fb

— dukeness (@dukeness) March 27, 2012

Did you transmit this meal's nutritional information to Vladimir? #DInnerWithBarack

— ن Miké Ramoné ن (@ThePantau) March 27, 2012

If I had #DinnerWithBarack, there would be a food fight. I am not eating my &@%#€ peas! I'm flinging them!

— Jessica Livengood (@CharmingLegs) March 27, 2012

Can you stop speechifying? I'm watching Firefly on my iPad. MT @BarackObama: What would you ask the President over dinner? #DinnerWithBarack

— Jim Jamitis (@anthropocon) March 27, 2012

#DinnerWithBarack Could someone please tell Chris Matthews to stop shaking the table with his tingles?

— John Wehrle (@jwehrle) March 27, 2012

At #DinnerWithBarack I would ask if he thinks it's classy to use #Trayvon's death for political purposes? #hoodiesforsale

— Anita (@redrivergrl) March 27, 2012

For our Jewish friends, we have pulled pork. You don't have to eat, it, but you do have to pay for it. #DinnerWithBarack

— Political Math (@politicalmath) March 27, 2012

Why do you keep starting hashtags? RT @BarackObama What would you ask the President over dinner? #DinnerWithBarack

— Teri Christoph (@TeriChristoph) March 27, 2012

This is just too easy.

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Hey, What’s That Outside Our Hotel Room Window? Is That A …OMG, NO WAY!

Imagine this: You’re on vacation, waking up to a cool breeze flowing through your bedroom window, as the sun slowly rises in the distance.  As you slowly open your eyes, you smell the aroma of freshly made coffee and breakfast.  The last thing you expect is for someone, or some thing, to be watching you. And yet, here at this hotel deep in the heart of Africa, that’s exactly what you’d expect from the most loveable hotel guests you’ll ever find.

Found in Kenya, this hotel sits on the 140-acre animal sanctuary run by the African Fund for Endangered Wildlife (AFEW)

Built in the 1930’s, and later purchased in 1974, it features amazing architecture and scenary

And of course the rooms are fabulous.

But the reason to stay here is getting to hang out with these guys everyday!

Called Giraffe Manor, the house is home to 10 wild giraffes.

Every day these giraffe make their way from the neighboring preserve to catch up with guests.

Which just so happens to be the same time as breakfast 🙂

And although they typically eat a plant based diet…

They don’t mind the occasional treat.

The hotel even encourages this and gives guests pellets and veggies to encourage them to feed the giraffes!

What they take in food, they give back in laughter.

Just remember to be a good dinner guest and tip well!

Because these guys work hard…

And are the life of the party!

At $550 a night, you’ll be sure to get your money’s worth 🙂

So when are you booking your stay?

To learn more about booking your next adventure with these awesome animals, and one that no one will believe, check out The Safari Collection.  Just make sure you bring some special treats! Source:  Flickr / H/T Business Insider

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Why We Need To Fight Online Trolls, Not Just Ignore Them

People say to “just ignore” men like Ed Champion who attack women like me on the internet. Why that’s not OK.

Jenny Chang / BuzzFeed

“Develop a thicker skin.” It’s a phrase I’ve heard a lot over the years (as recently as a few days ago), and for a long time I took it to heart and hoped I would develop the kind of calluses that these people were talking about. I’m a woman who’s had an internet presence for a little more than a decade now. Which means that for the last 10 years I’ve been told that I’m a stupid cunt and that I should do the world a favor and kill myself fairly often, mostly by anonymous strangers. If you’re shocked, you’re likely not a woman. Or maybe you’re not online much, or you’ve never had a controversial opinion in your life; maybe your “corgis eating ice cream cones” Pinterest board is the extent of your ventures into social media, and if so, god bless. Personally, I’ve come to expect online attacks and threats; I’ve dealt with them for so long that they hardly register. I accept them in the same way that I’ve come to accept that smelling piss and garbage is an inescapable part of living in New York, which I also do.

But as it keeps happening, I start to wonder whether the problem is really mine.

This summer, the week that my first novel, Friendship, was being published, a longtime “lit blogger” named Ed Champion published an 11,000-word attack that crossed every kind of line, including imagery of sexualized violence, several photographs of me, and a reference to my “slimy passage.”

I was about to embark on a book tour, and concerned friends and co-workers in publishing quickly informed me that Champion had a reputation for showing up at authors’ events and creating disturbances. I tweeted about how upset I was, but this just seemed to fan the flames, and once I realized what was happening, I stopped. At a time when I’d had most cause to hope that the conversation about me might finally shift to my writing itself, it was instead, once again, about my internet presence, me as a “lightning rod” for criticism, and the question of whether or not I deserved or even courted that kind of attention. Being silent didn’t make me feel better, though; I lasted about a day off Twitter, then started participating in the conversation again.

Many people, it turned out, had read those 11,000 words and didn’t understand what the fuss was. This was “just a book review.” A very bad review, but still. I should learn to take criticism more gracefully. I should develop a thicker skin.

Or better yet: Just ignore it! (As Salon senior writer Laura Miller advised the other day.) This is, of course, what you’re supposed to do with actual book reviews. Authors are supposed to say, “Oh, I don’t read reviews” in the same tone of voice that people use to describe having given up TV or refined carbohydrates. But I always read reviews; I can’t help it, and I don’t feel guilty about it, either. I’ve never seen writing as something that takes place in a hermetic aerie far above the world; I like to have a conversation about my own writing and other people’s, and most of that conversation takes place online. I’m interested in general in how people write about books, and of course I’m even more interested when those books are mine.

And one thing I’ve noticed, reading reviews not just of my own books but of the books I sell via Emily Books, is that a lot of female authors are subject to the same treatment I’ve gotten. These authors are reviewed personally alongside their books, in a way that rarely happens to men. The author Jennifer Weiner tweeted several examples the other day, including “reviews” of herself, Fifty Shades of Grey author E.L. James, and one of my own book: In the New York Times, lead book critic Michiko Kakutani took three paragraphs even to get around to mentioning my book, and on the way there, she quoted — somewhat extensively! — from anonymous comments left on a 2010 essay that I wrote. In a review of, supposedly, my novel.

In a climate where no one — no editor, no reader, no publicist — steps in and says to the lead book critic of the New York Times, “Wait a minute, isn’t that enormously and obviously fucked up?” it’s not surprising that people can’t tell the difference between Champion’s unhinged ramblings and a “book review.” I’m offended on my own behalf, of course. (Duh!) But I’m also worried about girls and women reading this kind of thing and mistaking it for a fixed condition of a literary culture they’re trying to find a place in.

Even if Champion’s rant had been a “book review,” which it wasn’t, it’s not my job to ignore it. I’d go so far as to say that the people who tell women to “just ignore” gendered criticism, bullying, and harassment — which I’m fine with lumping together, because they’re all components of a system that works together to repress women’s work — are asking women to collaborate in their own silencing. I’m not going to ignore it; I’m not even going to try. If “feeding the trolls” provokes or encourages them in the short term, I don’t really give a fuck. In the long term, with sustained resistance, it’s the only way to create the impression that something has to change. If there’s anything the last 10 years have taught me, it’s that telling the truth isn’t always fun, but it’s the only way to change anything.

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Notes On An Eating Disorder

I still tell my friends I am in recovery so they will hold me accountable.

Justine Zwiebel/BuzzFeed

1. It is not rational. It sits inside my body like a worm. It wraps around the edge of my vision and colors everything I touch. All day long I think about it and it thinks about me. I am 16. I am 17. I am 21. It is a worm that does not leave, but makes a home for itself high inside my chest.

2. I am not rational. I stand in front of the mirror and watch myself eating frozen green grapes until I feel sick. I am 18. I have known for some time that this has been inside me but lately it has manifested in behaviors I can name and I have both self-diagnosed and feared a diagnosis. I will never tell a doctor about this. I have read the diet blogs of young women who post litanies of their scary goal weights like lucky numbers and I have seen myself in them and I have seen a fear in me that I dread becoming.

After too much wine at a party one night my sophomore year, the boy I’m seeing is sick. He kneels over the toilet in his dorm, trying to throw up. “Punch me in the stomach,” he says. I look at him incredulously. I’m rubbing his back, trying to make him feel better.

“I don’t want to hit you,” I tell him. “Put two fingers in your mouth and touch the back of your throat, and then you’ll puke.”

Groggy with drink, he looks over at me. “You would know how to do that, wouldn’t you,” he says sharply, and I reel away from him, as though I’m the one who’s been punched. We have argued about food many times before, but never has he said something like this.

It is not really about the way I look. Sometimes I am preoccupied with weight, with size and with numbers, but if I had my way I wouldn’t have a body. As it is I don’t know what to do with mine, so it becomes an instrument, an exercise in restraint. I find new words for hunger, for appetite, in order to deny it. I find new methods of control. If anything the worm has always been about control, the control I exert over my body when no control is left.

3. What do I want? I don’t even know. I want everything. I want nothing. I have been allowed nothing. I feel like the master of my own giddy fate, the lens directing the sun into a narrow point of light. I am also the paper, which is on fire. In my head I describe the feeling as a wave, the scouring emptiness, like a shell that has been washed entirely clean of its old mucous self and exists only as an outline of its contents. Eventually even that feeling recedes into a sea of other feelings. Eventually I feel nothing except for myself burning and burning away.

Justine Zwiebel/BuzzFeed

4. I run laps in the darkness, in the witching hour between midnight and sunrise. In the mornings my body feels stretched out, aching and sore. I run until the soreness disappears. I keep running into the darkness, as though if I keep running the unkemptness of my body will float away. As though my body is a puzzle that I can solve. As though I can shut it off.

5. Sensory deprivation tanks are pools of still, salty water too dense to let you sink. Utter quiet. Utter darkness. You float until you lose all sensation, until your body confuses the nothingness with itself, until your body only understands the nothingness, until you, too, are nothingness. Recovery feels like emerging from a tank into the bright sun, so hungry, yawning and starved for everything rich and lush.

6. I am always in recovery, it seems. I am always emerging from the tank, I am always craving, I am always rubbing my eyes at the brightness of the thing I either made or am leaving behind.

7. Things that were once forbidden now seem like points of recovery to me. I hardly deny myself anything. I have to teach myself how to eat all over again. Food is a landscape marked by association. While working on a paper about anorexia blogs, I eat a stained paper carton of saag paneer with my hands standing in front of the refrigerator at 3 a.m. and in the white glow of the open door I wonder if I’m relapsing again. If there is no such thing as relapse, if the worm is always in me: Every time I eat standing up I feel the old anxiety again.

Today, at almost 22, I still tell my friends I am in recovery so they will hold me accountable. My boyfriend quietly puts together apples with peanut butter when I show up at his apartment close to midnight and, after he asks, I say I haven’t eaten. In France, alone, I confess to my colleague that I have trouble with food. The program where we work provides our meals and I am terrified at my lack of control over what I eat. Recovery is supposed to mean not denying, but I worry that I’ve inverted the script, that I consume everything because I am supposed to be better, not worse. And isn’t that just losing your grip on the whole machine again?

Sometimes I think about my relationship with food and it feels as though I’m in a room where the floor has been pulled away, everything in upheaval, no normal metrics at hand, my love of cooking and providing for those I care about tangling with my intense need to self-deny, to prove myself stronger for denying.

8. I worry that I make the paintings of an anorexic. That everyone will see through me to my secret wild desires for everything rich and lush. That at heart I am a wild animal, who only wants to rub her face on silk and fur and lap at milk. That I crave so much I can’t hold it inside me. Sometimes it’s all I think about, my fascination with scarcity and indulgence, with consumption and denial. I worry that I am utterly transparent. That everyone knows I have a problem. That it’s the only interesting thing about me.

9. I am 19. It is late and I have been working. I have not eaten in almost two days and I feel it like a thread running all the way through my body. It is equal parts control and sheer neglect, and satisfaction that the neglect has kept me so confined. But my mouth is dry and I dart out of the studio to buy a bottle of iced tea at the deli down the street. Back in my studio I uncap it and drink it so fast I almost choke, swallowing on top of swallows; I didn’t realize I needed it so much. I cough wet lemony coughs and feel horrified at myself. I never let myself have anything so good because what would I do with it?

Justine Zwiebel/BuzzFeed

10. I try to drink the rest of the tea more slowly but it’s hard because it tastes like what I need so much.

11. I screw the cap back on with shaky hands.

12. It didn’t have to be lemon iced tea. It could have been anything.

13. I make paintings with gel mediums and molding paste that looks just like frosting. I polish my work surfaces to a high shine. I use orange, pink, green-blue, and acidic yellow. I try to make things I can love, but they end up substitutes for the love of others. I eat standing up in the studio. I don’t eat. I eat. I don’t eat. I contemplate the worm inside me. I keep sliding back and forth along the same routes, trying to adjust the light in me, unsure of whether I’m in control, if I ever had control, trying to be good but not knowing what good means, thinking too much, always thinking too much.

I gain weight while abroad and though part of me celebrates it as the recovery I’m constantly supposed to be having, there is also a part of me that is scared of it, and ready to deny, raring to whittle myself down. I am happy when I gain weight and happy when I lose it because both mean something’s happening. I can write the narrative of progress either way and that should scare me. It doesn’t.

I start running again. I don’t know what it means.

14. Always I wonder if recovery ever exists. If I’m ever to be rid of this. I feel like it will always be on the periphery, a thing inside of me. It will always be there within me and every day I will think about it as it looks me in the face. It is about food and it is not about food at all; it has nothing to do with food but with things even more primal and closer to the bottom of being human. It is about control and desire and denial and all I can do is wrestle with it.

Today, every day, I can list everything I ate for you, but it wouldn’t help.

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The Invention That Could End Obesity

A Michigan surgeon invented an apparatus that he believes tricks the brain into thinking the stomach is full. His Full Sense Device could be a lifesaver for millions of obese Americans and raises questions about how hunger — our most basic human impulse — even works.

Bonnie Lauria was miserable. She was subsisting on liquids and a handful of foods her stomach could handle. Ever since she’d undergone gastric bypass surgery in the ’80s, foods like meat and bread that went down her throat in a lump would come right back up. “I knew where every bathroom was in every restaurant in the state,” Lauria says from her home in West Branch, Michigan. “It was horrendous.”

During gastric bypass surgery, the stomach is reduced to about the size of a walnut and attached to the middle of the small intestine. Lauria’s complications from the surgery weren’t normal, so she went under the knife a second time. Still, her condition didn’t change. She switched doctors several times, but no one could help. Eventually, someone recommended bariatric surgeon Dr. Randy Baker in Grand Rapids in 2004.

Baker ran some tests and saw that the spot where Lauria’s walnut-size pouch met her small bowel was tightening. Previous doctors had tried to widen the passage so that food could pass through, but the stricture had returned. Complicating Lauria’s condition were those multiple surgeries, which left so much scar tissue that operating again would be too difficult and too dangerous.

Dr. Randal S. Baker. Erin Kirkland / BuzzFeed News

Baker was at a loss. Then he started thinking about esophageal stents. Just like a coronary stent keeps an artery open, an esophageal stent holds the esophagus open and is often used in patients who have difficulty swallowing. What if one of those could prop open the small bowel too?

As far as Baker knew, no one had ever attempted a procedure like that before. But Lauria was out of options, so Baker told her his strategy. She agreed; he inserted the stent and hoped for the best.

“She came back to my office two weeks later and said, ‘Dr. Baker, I’m feeling great. I can eat sloppy Joes!’” Baker says. “Here’s a lady who could only do liquids, and now she can eat solids. And she’s losing weight.”

Lauria didn’t have an explanation; she told Baker she simply wasn’t hungry anymore. Baker wondered if he and other bariatric surgeons had been going at it all wrong. The stent, he theorized, was putting pressure at the top of Lauria’s pouch and sending signals to her brain saying, “I’m full.” It was doing what food does, but without actual food. Which raised some questions: What if we don’t need invasive surgeries that cut away portions of the stomach and rearrange the digestive tract and intestines? What if all we need is a device that puts pressure near the top of the stomach?

Baker set out to test his hypothesis, teaming up with a former product specialist from W.L. Gore (creators of Gore-Tex) and two surgeons at his Grand Rapids practice to create the Full Sense Device — a nitinol wire-mesh funnel coated in silicone that can be inserted through the mouth and placed in less than 10 minutes. Current plans would allow the device to remain for up to six months before removal, though in the future that time may be longer. In the company’s trials, every patient implanted with the device lost weight and continued to lose weight until the device was removed. Baker calls the phenomenon “implied satiety.” At six months, average patients lost 75% of their excess body weight — significantly more and at a faster rate than any bariatric procedure, and all, Baker says, with no “severe adverse side effects.”

The Institute for Health Metrics and Evaluation estimates that 160 million Americans — nearly half — are overweight as indicated by their body mass index, which is calculated from a person’s height and weight. (A BMI between 25 and 29.9 is considered overweight; 30-plus is obese.) Of those people, 24 million are estimated to be morbidly obese, meaning they have a BMI over 40 and are at higher risk for serious, life-threatening illnesses, including heart disease, diabetes, degenerative arthritis, and cancer. Bariatric surgeries can and often do lead to impressive weight loss, yet only 1% of obese Americans opts for the invasive and costly procedure — usually $20,000 to $30,000. (Rex Ryan, Roseanne Barr, Carnie Wilson, Al Roker, Chris Christie, Randy Jackson, and Star Jones are reported to be among the 1%.)

“There are a bunch of things that contribute to that,” says Randy Seeley, an obesity researcher and professor of surgery at the University of Michigan. “One is the ick factor — ‘someone is going to chop up my GI tract.’ Some of it is cost — it’s still not universally covered. Third is stigma. The implication is that it’s the easy way out — you’re cheating somehow by taking that option — which goes to our societal biases about obesity.”

Dr. Baker has come up with a nonsurgical device that he says will enable obese patients to lose substantial weight, and at a fraction of the cost of surgery — in the neighborhood of $5,000 at an outpatient center. A company claiming to have found a simple solution to drastic, easy weight loss is, of course, nothing new; in fact, it’s big business. (See: late-night infomercials.) Some surgeons and researchers are skeptical of Baker’s pressure theory, and at least one patient experienced chronic acid reflux after the device was inserted. But more than 10 years after the eureka moment, Baker is hopeful that doctors in Europe could begin using the Full Sense Device this year and in Canada and Mexico soon after. Americans will have to wait longer; Food and Drug Administration approval is unpredictable and likely still years away. Baker’s concern, though, is that the Full Sense Device might work too well. If it’s effective, easy, and cheap, what’s to stop people from abusing it?

“When this hits the market, there’s not going to be just 10,000 to 15,000 people having it,” says Fred Walburn, president and sole employee of Full Sense Device’s parent company, BFKW. “There’s going to be hundreds of thousands. Millions per year.”

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At Grand Health Partners, the Grand Rapids practice Randy Baker shares with other bariatric surgeons, including his business partners Dr. James Foote and Dr. Paul Kemmeter (the F and K in BFKW), the hallways are extra wide and the doors are oversize. Waiting-room chairs are huge. Even the toilets are bigger and mounted to the floor (not the wall) to better accommodate obese patients. Everything is designed for the comfort of patients who are used to being uncomfortable wherever they go.

On a fall afternoon, Baker shows me into Grand Health Partners’ endoscopy suite, where I watch him put a scope down patients’ throats to investigate postoperative acid reflux and take preoperative biopsies.

In black slacks and a striped button-down, Baker, 50, taps on his iPad while nurses sedate the patients. Despite his 6-foot-5-inch frame, he’s not an imposing figure. With tidy, graying hair and black, wire-rimmed glasses, he has the kind but serious air of a high-school chemistry teacher. When he explains that he discovered something no one else had thought of, he says it with zero dramatic flair. The most animated version of Baker shows up when he explains something, and I respond in a way that communicates an understanding of the concept. “Exactly!” he says.

Each endoscopy is quick — 10, maybe 15 minutes. Patients aren’t in a deep sleep; inserting the scope only requires sedation as opposed to the general anesthesia that is often needed for surgery. Some of these patients will see Baker again in the coming weeks for a 60- to 75-minute sleeve gastrectomy, his preferred bariatric surgery. Such procedures are most often a last resort for morbidly obese patients.

Later that night, as I’m sitting across from Baker at Kitchen 67, a chic Grand Rapids bistro with rows of pulsating screens on the ceiling and iPads in the booths, Baker prays for our meal and our families. He’s the father of nine, an elder at his church, and the board president of Zion Christian School, where he led the charge in revamping the entire curriculum. He and his family used to sing and tour in a Southern gospel group. Baker recommends the burgers, noting that I should feel free to build my own burger instead of choosing one of the restaurant’s signature varieties. “I don’t like categories,” he says.

Once I finish my cheeseburger, Baker takes out his MacBook and queues up a video of a bariatric surgery. An extreme close-up of white-and-red gut gore appears on the screen, followed by a harmonic scalpel that looks like a serrated pincer, which begins squeezing and cutting masses of surprisingly tough, glistening white fat from a pinkish mass that Baker tells me is the stomach — “the second biggest I’ve ever seen.” I glance around the restaurant and ask him if we can turn the screen a bit so as not to ruin someone else’s dinner.

Even though he’s performed thousands of bariatric surgeries, Baker hasn’t lost sight of the harsh, invasive nature of what’s happening in that video. He explains that he spends most of each surgery attempting to gain access to the stomach. Obese patients have so much fat, not to mention an enlarged stomach and liver, that the workspace is cramped. The flimsy spleen is close by, as well. Brush it ever so slightly and it’ll bleed. Plus, there are vessels hidden in the fat. If a surgeon hits a vessel that starts to bleed, it sets off a frantic search to find the source.

“I had a patient who died once from a different surgery because there was an abnormal vessel in an abnormal place, and it started bleeding,” Baker says. As surgeries go, these are relatively safe. Mortality rates for three common procedures — gastric bypass (also called Roux-en-Y), vertical sleeve gastrectomy, and gastric banding — range from 0.14% to 0.03%, which are lower than gallbladder removal or hip-replacement surgery mortality rates.

“This one started to bleed a little bit,” Baker says, pointing to a spot on the screen. “I’m guessing where the bleeding is, but I can’t tell. Can you tell where the bleeding is?” I’m clueless. He closes the computer. “This is the best we have right now,” he says. “When I’m operating on big patients, I’m thinking, This would be a piece of cake if we popped in a Full Sense Device. The biggest highway to the stomach is not through the abdomen. It’s through the mouth!”

Photograph by Erin Kirkland for BuzzFeed News

Though the concept of hunger may seem simple, it isn’t, nor is it understood entirely. Scientists haven’t pinned down exactly how the stomach communicates with the brain. The interaction between gut hormones and the nervous system is key — ghrelin and leptin, for instance, act on neural components of hunger — but there isn’t a complete set of answers for how the gut regulates appetite.

There’s also no consensus as to how or why bariatric surgery often leads to dramatic weight loss and diabetic improvements (or why sometimes it doesn’t). Most bariatric surgeons were taught that the procedures lead to weight loss through restriction and/or malabsorption, and many still hold fast to those two explanations. The restriction theory says that the surgeries lead to weight loss by limiting the amount of food the body can hold. Malabsorption — when something is bypassed to reduce absorption of calories — is also thought to play a role in gastric bypass. But research from the past few years suggests that there are, at the very least, more things going on.

What makes a gastric bypass patient eat less, Baker theorizes, is that it takes less food to put enough pressure on the stomach so that it sends neurological and hormonal signals to the brain saying, “I’m full.”

“People used to think satiety was on or off,” Baker says. “You’re hungry or you’re not hungry.” But Baker says it’s actually a continuum. When there’s nothing in the stomach you have hunger, then you progress to “not hungry,” then levels of fullness, then nausea, then vomiting. “The more pressure you put on,” he says, “the higher you get up that cycle.”

Randy Seeley, the University of Michigan researcher, has a different take. “It’s very clear that restriction and malabsorption have little to do with how surgery works,” says Seeley. His research points instead to the importance of gut bacteria — particularly the hormonal action of bile acids — after surgery.

While Seeley says he’s willing to be convinced by data, he’s no less skeptical of Baker’s pressure theory. There are stretch receptors in the stomach, and the nerves there do respond and generate a signal when you stretch those receptors. But he wonders how much that matters to body weight. “For [Baker] to say that it’s not about restriction is getting outside of a surgeon’s box,” Seeley says. “But to say that it’s pressure, for me, is not changing the box very much.”

Baker agrees that gut bacteria and hormones are important, but thinks the stomach’s upper portion is the gut’s brain, which sets other processes in motion. Still, many questions remain regarding the roles restriction, malabsorption, pressure, hormones, and nerves play in bariatric surgery, and the answers will likely determine whether the Full Sense Device is a legitimate, long-term alternative to weight-loss surgery.

“When we have all those answers, we can put surgeons out of business,” Seeley says.

DEA PICTURE LIBRARY/De Agostini / Getty Images

First came the animal studies. Between 2005 and 2008, BFKW held five studies using beagles, which are less prone to ulcers than pigs and have an esophagus similar in length and width to a human’s.

“We ended up having 1% total body weight [loss] per day,” Baker says of the final six-week beagle study. “In the protocols, they said if you get to 20% weight loss, you euthanize the animals. The vets came to us and said, ‘We’re at that 20% rate. Most of the time, animals that lose this weight will become lethargic. These animals are wagging their tails. We’ve never seen anything like this. They’re starving themselves to death, and they’re happy about it.’”

The dogs were actually losing too much weight, so the device was later softened. Also, in a few of the dogs, the device fell out. “The instant they migrated, the dogs were hungry,” Walburn says. (Walburn had quit his job at Gore and moved to Grand Rapids to work full-time on the Full Sense Device.) “They ate every bit of food that was in their cage.”

BFKW’s patient trials have been overseen by Baker, Foote, and Dr. Jorge Trevino, a surgeon in Cancun. The first six-week study in November 2008 was limited to three patients who were fitted with the device and told to go on a liquid diet for one week, then eat normally. They also met with a nutritionist. All three lost significant weight.

Just as the beagles had been, the initial trial patients “were just happy,” Walburn says, explaining what they believe is going on: “Because of the pressure on the top of the stomach, the body does not think you’re dieting. It thinks you’re full. It does not reduce the metabolism like what happens when you go on a diet.” In other words, the body doesn’t think it’s being starved for nutrition.

After making some tweaks, BFKW did a randomized controlled trial, which is the gold standard for clinical trials of drugs and medical devices. The randomized controlled trial was three months long and involved a relatively small sample of 18 patients, six of whom were in the control group and received no treatment. At three months, the control group had 15% excess weight loss compared with 42% in the group that had the device. BFKW then did a “crossover trial,” taking three of the patients from the control group and fitting them with the device.

“We put the device in them, and boom — if you compare that to when they thought they had the device but they didn’t, there’s a clear, statistical difference,” says Baker, who indicates that every patient — about 110 of them at this point — in the company’s various trials has lost weight and continued to lose weight with the device in place.

In a taped interview in Mexico, 41-year-old primary-care physician Manuel Perez explains in Spanish that the stress of studying medicine caused him to gain weight and eventually develop diabetes. His weight peaked around 285 pounds. After injuring his back, he couldn’t exercise much, and going to a nutritionist didn’t help. (“Mexican food is very delicious, so I couldn’t continue with the diet adequately,” he says.) Once fitted with the Full Sense Device in Cancun, Perez says he could control his diet better and he didn’t spend as much money on food. He lost 46 pounds in six weeks, and his diabetes and high blood pressure disappeared. His back pain went away too.

“Before I wanted to fill myself,” Perez says. “Now I eat very little.”

Not everyone’s story is as rosy as Perez’s, though. When I spoke to 49-year-old Cancun patient Luz del Carmen Gabriel, who had her Full Sense Device removed in January, she complained of severe acid reflux and nausea for the four months the device was in place. “It was uncomfortable when I slept,” Gabriel says. “I had to sleep sitting almost.”

Baker says Gabriel’s reflux was directly related to her size. She’s 4 feet 8 inches tall, which means she has a shorter esophagus than the average patient, and right now there’s only one size of the Full Sense Device. In the future, Baker hopes to have several sizes customized to a person’s height.

Gabriel says she wouldn’t necessarily recommend the Full Sense to others because of the reflux she experienced. “I got it bad,” she says. “Other patients didn’t get it at all.” But she’s satisfied with her weight loss from the device, which worked better than the pills and diets she’d tried. She ate “much less,” she says. Last summer Gabriel had a BMI of 32, and now she’s down to a BMI of 24, putting her in the normal, healthy range. She lost nearly 40 pounds, which means, because of her small stature, she achieved more than 100% of her excess body weight loss.

“Of course it was worth it,” she says. “I feel more flexible. I feel more comfortable in my clothes … I feel better when I see myself. I feel good.”

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Baker and his partners are submitting the device for CE mark certification, which would grant approval for use throughout Europe, a process that is typically cheaper and more expedient than the FDA process. Also, the FDA says it requires a device to be both safe and effective, whereas the CE mark focuses only on safety. According to this model, as long as the Full Sense Device is safe, if no one loses weight with it, doctors will stop using it and patients won’t request it.

“We have six or seven centers identified and ready to go in Europe,” Baker says. “These are doctors who have a history of research — top-notch doctors.”

One of those is Shaw Somers, known in the U.K. as the bariatric surgeon on reality TV shows The Food Hospital and Fat Surgeons. Somers met Baker at a surgical conference in Istanbul in August 2013.

“There’s always a dose of skepticism when someone comes out with a claim that something works as well as a major intervention,” Somers says. “Most of the other implantable devices we use and have experience with aren’t as good.” But Somers, who doesn’t have a financial stake in the product or parent company BFKW, believes this one is different. “The Full Sense Device ticks all the right boxes,” he says. “It’s effective, easy to take in and out. There’s nothing out [there] to give it a run for its money.”

Since the U.S. doesn’t allow human trials unless it’s part of the FDA’s approval process, all of the Full Sense patient studies have been conducted in Cancun. Somers expects a call this year to head down to Mexico for training on insertion and removal of the device, and he’ll use that experience to put together a package of care at his own center. Baker and Somers say these “centers of excellence” are key to bringing the Full Sense Device to market. They will be equipped with resources similar to a practice like Baker’s Grand Health Partners, which includes dietitians, exercise physiologists, and behaviorists who specialize in bariatric psychology. The practice has its own store stocked with recommended (and GHP-branded) foods.

“It’s not, ‘Let’s just pile them high and sell them cheap,’” Somers says. “No device will work simply by implanting it without some type of instruction and modification of lifestyle. You need to manage patients in the medium term and longer term. What this industry does not need is a quick fix.”

Baker is fairly optimistic about the timeline and likelihood of FDA approval, especially after the approval in January of EnteroMedics’ Maestro System — the first medical device OK’d to treat obesity since 2007. That surgically implanted device is similar to a pacemaker, sending electrical pulses to the vagus nerve, which plays a role in the stomach’s communication with the brain. Headlines touted the “appetite-zapping implant” and even conspiracy theorist Alex Jones got in on the action, using the approval to decry the “deadly secrets of a hackable fat chip.” But there’s a question of how well the device works: Patients in a yearlong clinical trial did lose weight, but the 156 patients who received the device lost only 8.5% more of their excess weight than the 76 patients who were given a placebo implant.

This isn’t the first time a company has developed a stomach pacemaker. In 2005, the Wall Street Journal reported that “a new wave of implantable stomach devices could transform the way doctors approach obesity,” focusing particularly on the Transcend gastric stimulator, often referred to as a “gastric pacemaker” because, like the Maestro system, it sends electrical pulses to the stomach in hopes of regulating appetite. Medtronic, one of the world’s largest medical-device companies, purchased Transcend’s parent company for $260 million in 2005. But trials didn’t show a significant difference in weight loss between those who had the device implanted and those who did not. Transcend is still available in Europe as a treatment for obesity, but the FDA never approved it.

Despite similar doubts over the efficacy of EnteroMedics’ Maestro system, last summer an advisory panel decided the potential benefits of the device outweighed the risks, and the FDA followed suit with its approval. The high expectations for another questionably effective gastric pacemaker — which will cost between $15,000 and $30,000, about the same price as bariatric surgery — shows just how hungry the FDA, medical-device companies, and the general public are for an obesity-fighting alternative to bariatric surgery. And more endoscopic devices — balloons, fillers, liners — are on the way. One in the pipeline is GI Dynamics’ EndoBarrier, a liner placed at the beginning of the small intestine that was approved in Europe and is undergoing clinical trials in the U.S. In a previous trial, average excess weight loss with the EndoBarrier was 19% after three months — better than Maestro or Transcend, but not as impressive as BFKW’s studies.

Dr. Baker with Fred Walburn, president of BFKW Erin Kirkland / BuzzFeed News

Fred Walburn, president of BFKW, is more cautious than Baker about FDA approval for the Full Sense Device. He estimates the company won’t even begin the FDA process for three or four years. Walburn thinks the Full Sense Device could make the FDA nervous, but for precisely the reason you’d think it shouldn’t make a regulatory agency nervous. “If you’re a regulatory person, and everything you’ve done looks great,” Walburn says, “but there’s some tiny thing we’re missing, we’re not going to miss it in 1,000 patients. There’s gonna be a million people. If we made a mistake in approving it, we’ll get hauled in front of Congress.”

“That’s the big issue,” he says. “If it wasn’t [as] effective, and it would have a smaller market potential, it would be easily approved.”

Mary McGuire Photograph by Erin Kirkland for BuzzFeed News

Around 2009, Mary McGuire was watching TV with her husband when the local news ran a segment about Baker and the Full Sense Device. “I just looked at my husband and said, ‘Oh my gosh. This could be what I’ve been looking for,’” McGuire says. McGuire is 5 feet 5 inches and 291 pounds.

When McGuire was young, her mother would make doughnuts at home. The warm dough coated in cinnamon and powdered sugar was a special treat, though — not something they did all the time. When McGuire was just 7, her mother, a dietitian, died of pancreatic cancer. “Back then, you just kind of dealt with it,” McGuire says. “I never really had anyone to talk to about it.” Her father, now a single parent, would buy himself treats for his brown-bag lunches for his workweek: “He would take a paper bag for the week and have it full of sweets, and he would hide it up in the cupboard,” McGuire remembers. “He thought he was hiding it, but we all knew where it was. I would get home from school before he did, so I would get up on the chair to get into the cupboard and eat some cookies. When I lost my mom, that was my comfort food.”

McGuire, 53, still loves sweets: chocolate, cake, cookies, doughnuts. “If I get bad news about something, I’ll go to food,” she says. “Or happy too. A lot of times it’s boredom. A lot of times it’s stress. Some people pick up a cigarette. I pick up food. It comforts me. It relaxes me.”

Everything else she had tried either didn’t work or helped only temporarily: Weight Watchers, Slim-Fast, South Beach, Overeaters Anonymous, TOPS (Taking Off Pounds Sensibly), and Adipex, an appetite suppressant. Adipex helped her get down to 230, but she slowly gained it all back. None of the diets or portion-control strategies combined with exercise left her feeling satisfied. “I don’t get that full feeling,” she says. “That’s what I’m looking for. I want that sensation.”

McGuire emailed Fred Walburn after watching the TV segment, and ever since she’s been checking the company’s website for updates on the Full Sense Device. She’s convinced it’s the best solution for her. “It’s just so promising,” she says. “It makes sense to me.”

McGuire speaks about the piece of silicone and wire like it’s her destiny and last great hope. She goes to a pain clinic for pinched nerves in both her legs and struggles with high blood pressure, high cholesterol, sleep apnea, and edema. “I told my doctor the other day I feel like a beached whale,” she says. “I don’t want to be this big again. It’s awful. I hate it.”

Despite her desperation, McGuire won’t entertain the notion of bariatric surgery even for a second. A breast cancer survivor, she’s already had to endure more than 20 surgeries. But she can feel the clock ticking. “I know what my future holds if I don’t do something,” she says. “It’s not gonna be good.”

Photograph by Erin Kirkland for BuzzFeed News

Even if the Full Sense Device is approved and becomes an alternative to bariatric surgery, the question remains as to whether it’ll be able to provide lasting weight loss. Dr. Steven Bowers, a surgeon with the Mayo Clinic in Jacksonville, Florida, says the device is interesting, but he puts it in the same group as any other temporary, endoscopic weight-loss device. “It’s not astonishing that you can get the weight off people,” Bowers says. “The tricky part is the weight maintenance afterwards.”

Researcher Randy Seeley has similar concerns. “I’d be willing to bet a lot of money that when you take it out, people will gain the weight back,” Seeley says. “People want to think they’ll be so happy as a lean person that they’ll learn to be lean. And therefore, once they experience what it’s like to be leaner, they’re gonna stay lean. And that just doesn’t happen. There’s a reason why there’s no reunion shows for all the people who’ve been on The Biggest Loser.”

Baker acknowledges there will always be recidivism, but the ability to start over at an obese patient’s optimal weight is significant. And he maintains that no other weight-loss option currently available can match the Full Sense Device. “Nothing we have delivers 100%,” he says. “It is true — if patients want the best chance of keeping the weight off, they need to learn how to exercise and do all these other things right. But that’s true for everything. That’s true for surgery.”

Baker is less concerned about the device working than it working too well. Remember the beagles who were starving themselves to death and happy about it? What if irresponsible doctors allow overeager patients to lose unhealthy amounts of weight? What if this device becomes a new fad diet? “Somebody will abuse it, and I don’t like that,” Baker says. “But how do you deal with that?”

After Baker and his team safely removed the Full Sense Device from 10 more patients this month in Cancun, BFKW achieved “design freeze,” meaning the company is done tweaking (for now) and can move forward with the remainder of CE mark submission. Sometime this year, Shaw Somers and other surgeons from around the world will head to Mexico for training. As Walburn finishes the European approval process, he also has to keep the horse blinders on Baker, who’s already sketching out adjustable and absorbable versions of the device — ones that would potentially allow patients to keep the device in place for more than six months and could be tailored to each patient’s body type, whether morbidly obese or just overweight. “Randy is a chess player,” Walburn says. “He’s thinking two or three moves ahead. I don’t want him to stop, but I have to stay focused. I just tell him, ‘Write it down.’”

Bonnie Lauria hadn’t realized how far Baker had come in bringing his device to market until we spoke. “If it wasn’t for him, I’d still know where all the bathrooms in every restaurant are,” she says. “He saved me a lot of years of suffering.” She also needs help again. It’s been decades since her gastric bypass, and Lauria, now 73, hasn’t been able to keep the extra weight off. Back in 2004, she was allowed to keep her esophageal stent in for only six weeks. “I was happy because I’d started losing weight,” she says. “I’d like to have that stent back, I’ll tell you that. It works.”

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